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Stajnica

Stajnica - tablaThis is a google translated copy of an excellent article in Croatian about Stajnica as it appears on  http://www.stajnica.com/stajnica. I have made some really minor improvements to the basic google translation, more are needed:

 

Basic natural geographical features
The Brinje area is an integral part of Lika Basin as a whole and relief at the end of Licko potkapelskog space as podcjeline. This is the northern edge of the contact with Like Gorski Kotar and Kordun (Ogulin plašćanskom-valley). Rounded and closed the natural environment brinjskog end with a few small rocky fields now | inter-related, is set aside as a separate territorial entity, which has a favorable geographical and climatic conditions. Highland Heights, riddled gentle rocky fields, has provided the conditions for life, which is especially favored close to the coast, they are thus reached intense and beneficial atmosphere of great Mediterranean civilizations.
... Village Stajnica located on the north-eastern part of present-day community Brinje or in the extreme north of Lika. This is a typical karst area, which includes karst Stajničko field with the surrounding mountain areas and the stream Jaruga that sinks near the Jezerana. Stajničko field is located on the southern slopes of the mountain ridge of Mala Kapela. The picturesque contacts with the surrounding forested mountains provide a beautiful landscape. Total basin area is 63 km ². On the north side are the dominant peaks Chapel: Great panos (1,079 m above sea level) and sharp peak (1,164 m above sea level).
On the western side the Crnačko field continues, basin area 34 km ², with the neighboring towns Jezerane and Crnač. The east side of the field Glibodolsko basin area 46 km ². On the west branch Glibodolskog fields developed village Lipica, which is in the older part of the history of any Stajničke parish. Subsequent development of branches in an independent parish. Stajnica consists of several independent, mostly patriarchal, hamlets, which are located along the edge of the Stajnica field. On the north side are the Porkulabi, Kolišće, Rajkovic, Krznarić, Smit, Dumenčić, Majtinići, Sveti Petar Vucetic and Čarapovo Selo, on the eastern edge of the field Ujaci and Tominčeva Draga, while the south side are located Zizic, Hill, fires, Murković, Mesic and Stefanic.
The average height Stajnica field ranges from 497 m above sea level (meters above sea-Jezerane), 505.2 (church) 511 (Čarapovo Village) and 554 (Tominac Draga). On the southern side Stajnica stretch hills Digging Great and Small (631 m above sea level), JELAKOVI (626 m above sea level), Mesic's tip, the tip of Peter and Paul, Šašina small (Plantaš) and Kalun (729 m above sea level). East of the hamlet Tominac Drage is the biggest tip of the hill 656 m above sea level. Further to the southwest ridge of Velebit begins (Senjsko any). On the dirt mountain areas are spacious mountain pastures and meadows that are used from time immemorial stajnički shepherds. Upper Stajnica had pastures and meadows, such as Mekote, Brezovac, Dolac, Črnetićka, Strmar, Petrovic biljevina, Large and Small Mrkovina, Slime, Strižakovica, Javorovka, Krševine, Leskovka, Tomašićka (source), arson, Vršeljak, Dumenčić Javorovka, Krčel, Pajine dear, Lokvice, Kozjaci, Old and New biljevina, Sinokoše, tip, Attic, Škura zlib, Jasenovka, Krčevina, Kodrićka, Brezovac, Bay, zlib, White and Black Maple, Ravna Draga, Runjavica, Sinokoše, Zidenica, Bujednjaci, Large and small vessels, Attic, Krč, Sebrde, Kujača, Great Bay, Stojanka, living water and other smaller areas.
Above the south side of the field are also rich in pastures, such as Digging, digging big, Kalun, Medvidnjaci, Sprajc javorovka, Mašić cleared, Pavlakovo, even Šmitova, Next to cleared, Banov tip, Lukic, Vučetić hand, Street Kladice, Strežbenica, Ćevin krč. All these areas regularly hair and used for grazing cattle.
Nearby Stajnica passes very important state road that connects north and south Croatian: old Josephine road Karlovac-Senj, and new highways, "Dalmatina - Bosiljevo-Sveti Rok. Mountain massif of Mala Kapela and United struggling the longest tunnel in Croatia, the total length 5860 meters. Traffic routes throughout history have deeply influenced the development of this region, but also his downfall, especially when they built an alternative road and rail routes to Rijeka and Split.

Water management and natural beauty - great potential

Stajničko area represents a significant and valuable source of large quantities of quality drinking water. The main aquifer is Stajnička Jaruga that the water supplied from several sources. Existing kaptaža Žižićevo vrilo determined yield 80-100 lit / sec is quoted at 630 m above sea level The source is the output type, a water management agreement allowed the use of 65 lit / sec of water. To the relevant source of ecological preserve, in the preparation of the decision of the zones of sanitary protection. In addition there Žižićevog Vrila Čabranovo vrilce, Štentićevo vrilce, Murkovićevo vrilo and Rupa. To the west are still Franićevo, Mesic and Štefanićevo vrilce. In the middle of the field there Thunder on the north side of the field is Markarova caveAnd to the east Vučetićevo vrilo, PALAMENT pit Plažanićeva baserka, Čarapov well and the source of the Sebrdama. They are active during heavy rainfall, especially in spring and autumn.
It should be noted that Stajnička ravine, according to the Environmental Protection Act, provides spatial-planning documentation as "and special reserve ichthyologic"Breeding and reserve fund for the identification brown trout. Time will receive special protection and conditions of use, which respected its vegetation, botanical, zoological and other dominant structures. Should be in the future to protect the special botanical, ornithological and forest vegetation reserves and protected landscapes which Stajnica abounds.
Nearby is Stajnica Rokin depths, Which is explored in detail with hidrogeološkog aspect and the aspect of possibilities of exploitation of groundwater. It is a flow speleological permanent underground water course. Minimum flow of water is about 2 m³ / s, while the maximum estimated at several hundred m³ / s. Conducted research and analysis of water point to a respectable amount of high quality water that can be used for water supply.

Air

...Character is known for its brutal climate. The climatic characteristics of this area affects its mountainous surroundings and relatively close to the coast on the western side, and the Pannonian region from the northeast. Therefore, this area belongs to the continental and mountain climate. Are characteristic of the relatively large differences between day and night temperatures, which in the summer months brings the morning dew in the transitional year period of the emergence of a strong cold. Winds typical of the south and the wind. Bura created "flows" of cold air over the mountain pass.
In general we can say that the climate is characterized by a marked summer and winter seasons. Summers are hot and humid, with frequent showers, thunderstorms and clouds prolomima. Winters are generally cold with the often rapid warming from the coast. Spring is quite cold and rainy. Constant threat of danger from spring frosts. Ranoproljetna average temperature (March-April) is about 8 ° C. During the summer sunny days the temperature rises up to 35 ° C. Summer nights are fresh and the morning temperatures average around 10 ° C.
In winter the average temperature falls below 0 ° C, usually not more than -3 ° C. In rare cases of temperature inversion known to fall early in the morning and up to -30 ° C. Increased temperatures are between -10 to -15 ° C. This area is certainly one of the coldest in the country. The average annual temperature is about 9 ° C (Weather station Otočac))
Snow began to fall, usually in November and can hold up to half of March The height of the snow can reach in extreme cases up to 70 cm. The usual height of snow is between 10-30 cm.
In the wider area of the average rainfall is about 1200 mm (kišomjerna cells Brlog). Maximum rainfall in November - about 150 mm, the same amount of December, 105 mm in June. In summer, frequent prolomi cloud, because the coastal mixing hot air with cold continental. According to the telling of old Stajničana somewhere at the beginning of the twentieth century occurred in the terrible cloudburst with extremely high rainfall. Torrent Chapel wore pieces of rocks, trees and huge amounts of Alluvial fan area of the country, which damaged a large number of downstream facilities. Abandoned due to heavy damage to the old school on Kolišću.
During periods of heavy rain, flooding occurs Stajničkog fields, which often destroy crops. The largest flood recorded was 1919th when the water flowed over the bridge jezeranskog. That when they worked and the sources which had not been at all active, such as sources in the hamlet Sebrdama uncles and many others. Another major flood occurred 1939. when the water came to the house in the village Zečeve Mesic. (N. Mesic)
In the history recorded a very strong winter, especially in the fifteenth century. In the annals most mentioned winter 1407 / 8, Which was called "a great winter." Shot from the cold stones and many rivers were frozen to the bottom. In 1480. River zaledile are already in October. And suffered from cold and Great Bunch, Ahmet Han notorious army of conquest on his way to Moscow.
Many cold winter was from the mid 16th mid 19th century, which is known as "Little ice age". Winter 1607 / 8. it was terribly difficult and long. Everything was under the ice. It is noted that on Pentecost (15 May) could skate on frozen goat. Was similar to winters 1657 / 8. Year 1660. was known for large amounts of snow when they pass through the chapel could not move from 3 November to 3rd May. United was cold and 1708 / 9 when the soil was frozen "Three cubits deep". Bells could not ring because they were bound in ice. The home is always a member of the lodge and cook while the others were in bed.
It seems that winter was the worst yet 1739/40. year. Lasted almost eight months. Are recorded in our region of temperature around -40 ° C. Victims are many animals, especially bees, and plants. And in the 19th century was a very harsh winter 1829/30. The cold began about 20 November and lasted until 5 May. In Lika was noted that the snow was high, "like home". To our ancestors had to feed livestock through the snowy Wind, carried by ice storms, go to the coast. There are many cattle and people died in this very difficult campaign. Recorded similar winter and 1879/80.
In the twentieth century and the coolest najsnježnija winter was one of the 1928/29. year. The Snows of Lika were recorded over one meter high and the temperature in Gospic was -36 ° C. Trains are the days of others buried in Blowing a lot of the households were left without food and fuel. Through the snow people are digging tunnels to reach a stable and fed cattle. Organized labor action in clearing the snow over the chapel to be established-such as traffic. And the sky zacrvenjelo probably appeared aurora borealis, which is caused by our ancestors many anxieties. Because of the famine wolves attacking livestock in the stables and dogs. The cold is long lasting, so they hate and streams. From the cold in Stajnica smrzao potatoes in cellars and trapovima. After the arrival of warmer weather it is rotted, and the owners had to put it into slurry. Most families are starving because of this. Administrative municipalities Jezerane acquired in the spring and seed shared by the hungry population. After that winter is survived by a little meat, beans, corn and dairy products. Most people were on the verge of starvation. Those who saved the little food given to those who were in poverty, just to be able to survive. (kazivačica M. Movrić)
Of course, recorded the winter and no snow and no freezing temperatures. Even in the cold 18th century there were several no snow, as 1738 / 9, 1758, 1763, 1765th and 1772. The further history of recorded winter 1289/90 which was "Unheard treasures". These girls winter for Christmas came in the church decorated with fresh flowers and young men were swimming in the rivers. Mid-January was ripe strawberries! In 1485. it was so hot that in January blossomed orchards, grass interfere and birds nests are bent. In 1539. girls on Epiphany wore freshly picked violets. Very mild winter was the 1789/1790. when Lika was virtually no snow fell.
After World War II were quite frequent weather disasters, particularly drought, which destroyed the already modest increase. But the worst was 1950. years when the 5th May fallen snow from which the freeze complete vegetation and crops. Only leaved foliage has fallen from the trees, which are spreading due to unbearable stench. After this disaster occurred a drought that has dokrajčila and the few agricultural crops that have survived (D. Tominac).

Geological materials and seismics

...Geological structure Stajnica should be seen within the wider area of Lika. Geologically it can look up to the age of approximately 300 million years (Paleozoic era). At the time this area was under the sea with pokojom elevation as an island. More will take the entire Mesozoic era (between 230 and 70 million years BC. Christ). In kenozojskoj era (under the age of 70 million years) is gradually rising current systems mountain of Velebit, Velika and Mala Kapela, caused by folding and other tectonic disturbances. The younger Tertiary and Quaternary the area exposed to the fault, when the shape of the mountain ridges and valleys in which they are formed lake, and after they dried up in the fertile fields created with rich deposited.
Stajničko field covered by alluvial streams naplavine (r). Mountain and surrounding mountain areas are built of Upper Jurassic - dark brown limestone Cladocoroposis (i) and brown dolomite (i-). From Čarapovog Sela to Tominčevoj Dear extends to the upper Cretaceous (kr) - rudinasti dolomite limestone and light. After the mountainous areas of the south side to the south (Sasina and Jelvica) prevails TiTON (it) - coral, diceratitni and elipsaktindijski light gray limestone and dolomite. Details are shown on the geological map in the appendix. Yr. 1960th Team caver from the Faculty of Science, headed by prof. Pavlicevic fully explore the underworld of this area. The crew spent about a month and made speleological map. On this occasion revealed olm Markarovoj in a cave. It should be noted that the animals previously detected only in the Postojna Cave. After these investigations came several teams of experts to explore these additional areas. Among them were such well-known experts Rather Tonci Split and 1991st This area is visited by teams from France, from the renowned team of researchers Jacques CousteauaWhen thoroughly explored Markarovu cave. (Jure Perkovic) All previous studies have shown that this area abounds with a very interesting underground facilities. That is below the top of Stone is a very large tank. Celebrities are still in the pits Samara, Krčevine, White hair, Štentina caves, and Bršljanka Pit Sekulićka, Which is over 100 meters deep. Speleological research and visit the underground can be an interesting tourist attraction, along with other comparative advantages can contribute to the revitalization of this area, and protecting nature from devastation.
Brinjska end belongs to many seismically active zone, as part of the Dinaric earthquake areas - one of the most active in the country. Tectonic line runs Velebit channel. Most vulnerable area of Senj, where he recorded September 15, 1590. earthquake IX. level with a very tragic and difficult consequences. Since it was a shame and a former Stajnica. Stronger earthquakes than VI. brinjsko degree in the field occurred 9th August 1895, 4 March 1906, and 14 July 1916. year. Since then, no major earthquakes.

Flora and fauna
(Prepared by: Mirko Sertić B. Sc. Sc. Forestry)

Who does not fascinates nature - forest, stream and meadows. Everything is so beautiful, modest, dignified and completely.
How to just calm and happy diverse bird's colorful butterflies or watching the circling from flower to flower! The forest is a very rich Stajnica. Vegetation Stajničke Chapel belongs to the eurosibirske - North American region and the mountain belt bjelogoričnih and coniferous forests of the Illyrian Provinces (S. Horvatić). Brinjsko area belongs to the Central European forest area. Under the influence of steep slopes Kapelski forests are broken down into two belts, which are vertically well-expressed: a) the mountain and mountain b) pretplaninski. Lower areas of the forest belt covers a mountain beech forest (Fagetum silvaticae croaticum montanum). This band continues to be mixed forests of beech and fir (Fagetum silvaticae croaticum abietetosum). Increase the height to arrive at the pretplaninsku beech forest or clean sastojinu spruce.
According to the forest - the economic division Stajničko field is located between the economic units "Stajnička Chapel" on the north side and Golosmreke Jelavlje "from the south side. In a vertical sense, "Stajnička Chapel" is marked by a large gap between the lowest and highest points (500 to 1190 m above sea level). Accordingly, among the high mountains. Therefore, it is possible to distinguish between vertical slojanje vegetation here is characterized by four basic klimazonalne plant communities.
The lowest band makes board oak and hornbeam (Querceto-Carpinetum croaticum).
The band 600-800 m.n.m. mountain beech forest occurs (Fagetu Illyricum montanum Ht.)
Belt 800-1200 m.n.m. belongs to the mixed community of beech and fir (Abieti-Fagetum-illyricum Ht.)
In addition to the above klimazonalnih, are represented and azonalne plant communities caused by different geological background, the genesis of soils, microclimates and the like. The edge of Chapel near Stajnica were previously exposed to enhanced degradation, so that there are Tree Coppice Forests of beech and hop hornbeam, shrubs, bujadnice and pastures, which is due to the disappearance of cattle reduced.
According to the size of the participation of plant communities in Chapel Stajničke can sort:
1st Beech and fir (Abieti-Fagetum illyricum Ht.)
2nd Fir forests on dolomite (Abietatum dolomiticum budget. Shoot)
3rd Mountain beech (Fagetum Illiricum montanum Ht.)
4th Beech with kukurijekom (Helleboro Fagetum budget. Shoot)
5th Mountain forests of beech with black ash (Fagetum croaticum montanum fac. Ornus Fraxinus)
6th Forest oak and hornbeam (Querco-Carpitenum croaticum Ht.)
Inclination (slope) field ranges from 0 degrees to 45 degrees, but exposure dominated southern and southwestern sides. Northwestern part, from the main ridge, the craggy and steep falls in the field. In the southeastern part of the terrain is indented with
many heads, mild kosama, ditches and inlets, which are down by Tominčevoj Dear and village.
Stajničku valley is characterized by distinct ozelenjenost landscape, so that the entire area defined by experts as "green surfaces are covered with debris. In the mountain area dominated by very dense vegetation consisting primarily of beech (Lamio orvale-Fagetum sylvaticae Ht.), Spruce or pine (Pinus Picea excelsa), Fir (Abies pectinanta), Maple (white, red and Ctenophore) and to a lesser extent oak (Quercus sessiliflora) oak and oak (Quercus ceris). Individually they appear white maple (Acer pseudoplatanas), Hornbeam (Carpinus betulus), Elm (Ulmus campestris), Ash (Fraxinus excelsior), Brekinja (Sorbus torminalis), Sorbus aria (Sorbus aria) as well as other rarer species.
Grmolikog of hazel trees appear (Corullus avellana), Sycamore maple (Acer campestre), Svibovina (Cornus mascula), Hawthorn (Crataegus oxyantha), Black thorn (Prunus spinosa), Elder (Sambukus nigra), Drijen and juniper. Grasslands are covered with numerous mountain herbs, which gives a very rich color during the summer.
In addition to plant life, is unavoidable not to mention very rich fauna, which, together with a natural plant ecosystems. From the animal world takes a special place game, which inhabit this area and the management through hunting is an economic character, which is realized in hunting tourism.
Since most animals are wolf (Canis lupus) and bear (Ursus arctos). There are a few common deer (Caperolus capreolus), Normal rabbit (Lepus europaeus), Wild boar (Sus scrofa), Swears zlatice (Martes martes), Swears Bjelice (Martes foina Erxleben), Form (Mustela putorius), Badger, weasel (Mustela nivalis), Urchin, foxes (Vulpes vulpes), Squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) especially large puha (Glis glis). Hazel was once the specialty of a very special quality of meat, fat and skin. He lives in the old beech trees and feeds žirom. There is a belief that the animal can sleep without food for several years. There are not many examples of wild cats (Felis sylvestris schreb), As found here are a few species of bats - netopira (Chiroptera).
Bird world is extremely rich. Known pumpoljača, lark (Alaudidae), Wind, rabbit, jackdaw, magpie, sparrow, crow (Corvidae), Swallow (Hirundinidae)And Jay (Nucifraga caryocatactes). Mountain hawk and hawk-pointer (Accipitridae) make quite a lot of damage stajničkoj poultry. Hawk has mišara. It is well known, and eagle owl (Bubo bubo)Unfortunately, the last time stajničkom the increased poaching, which threatens the destruction of the entire fund game. Our task is to protect the hunting management of flora and fauna for future generations. A significant number of flora due to its paucity of legally protected.
...Our area is most famous for čovječjoj ribici (Proteus anguinus) who lives in the eternal darkness of the underground areas. This quaint and curious resident, small animals pale, round body, weak, zakržljalih legs and eyes hidden under the skin inhabits some of our underground facilities such as Markarove cave. It is endemic of our regions. He lives only in our karst. Is protected throughout the country.
Stajnica is known for black swift (Salamandra atra), Copperhead (Natrix natrix), Lizard (Lacerta viridis), Anguis fragilis (anguis fragilis), Hop (Vipera ammodytes), Riđovki (Vipera berus), Živorodnoj gušterici (Lacerta vivipara) and trout (Salmo trutta m. fario). Jaruga rich stream and river crab (Astacus astacus).

Economy and prospects

The current population is mainly engaged in agricultural production and cattle breeding. Food animals except grass mixtures grown alfalfa and red clover. From other cultures are grown primarily potatoes, but still extensive, although the existing soil and climate suitable for its intensive cultivation. Barley, oats, wheat and corn are grown in small quantities.
Fruit production mainly comes down to the plum (blue Bistrica), which is largely contaminated šljivinom hinged. Plums are mainly used to produce brandy and there are conditions to the same drought and konfekcionira. There are very good conditions for the production of ecologically pure agricultural seed and merkatinlih products such as cabbage and beet possible, which can preserve the smaller drives. Other types of fruit grown in minimal amounts.
Given that Croatia lacks significant amounts of malt pivskog there are possibilities for the production of spring barley and oat and barley flakes. There are exceptional conditions and to collect various medicinal and aromatic plants, which is now a world trend.
Livestock can have a large share in total agricultural production, because there are excellent conditions for the production of hay, and large areas of pasture. This applies particularly to the development of sheep and goats and cattle. This would be intensified milk production and
dairy products and meat, and fresh and semi-durable products.
Jaruga the brook there a possibility for development of affordable sports-fishing, recreation and development of fisheries, which was after the Second World War was very current, but due to lack of understanding of the wider community that the project failed.
Kapelskog mountain forest resources should become the basis for the exploitation and processing of wood in different ways and for different purposes. There are very large stocks of wood mass.
Stajničko and the surrounding area provides exceptional opportunities for the development of hunting, rural, "Robinson", recreational tourism (hiking, caving, swimming, horseback riding, biking, sledding and skiing ...) Tourism could develop and produce food that is specific to this climate: trout, lamb, goat and sheep cheese, and "Škripavac, bass, sour milk, polenta, cabbage, sour milk, herbs, honey, mushrooms, venison and brandy. Home-made handicrafts such as biljaca, wool socks, iris and many other local products may be interesting to the modern consumer. The construction of a strategic road corridor Zagreb-Split and Yellow Pool - the river will be part of the future "Jadranskojonskog corridor" will be important to open this area and its wider availability of tourist needs, not only for the continental and the coastal region.

Winter in Stajnica

The Winter of 1928/29 was the coldest and bitterest winter of the 20th century. In Lika, snowfall exceeded a meter and the temperature in Gospic went as low as -36°C. Trains were stranded in passes for days and many households were left without heat and food. People dug tunnels in the snow to get to their stables to feed their stock. Work groups were organized to remove snow from the routes across the Kapela mountains so as to establish some kind of traffic (communication).

The sky became red and the assumption is that the northern lights were being seen that far south, which ... (što je kod naših predaka izazvalo brojne tjeskobe.)

Starving wolves attacked household dogs and livestock in stables. The cold lasted for a long time and rivers froze. The cold also froze potatoes that were stored in basements and trapovima(?storage?) in Stajnica and when the warmer weather finally came, the potatoes rotted and had to be composted. Because of this, most families went hungry. In spring, the Jezerane village council bought wheat and shared it amongst the hungry locals. People survived with a little meat, beans, corn and mliječnih proizvoda(?). Most people were on the verge of starvation. Those that had saved a little food gave to those that had none, just to help them survive.

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